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quinta-feira, 17 de setembro de 2015

These Dog and Cat Portraits Capture the Personalities of Our Favorite Pets



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18 months ago, 22-year-old photographer Rob Bahou started shooting a series of portraits focused on the two animals we know best: dogs and cats. His goal with the project is to show how expressive the faces of our beloved pets can be, treating the subject matter with respect and not focusing on breed, behavior, or funny moments. What resulted is a gorgeous and heart-warming project titled Animal Soul.

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Bahou is currently working on publishing Animal Soul as a 220-page photo book. While the content has already come together, Bahou says he’s still trying to catch the eye of a publisher.
You can find more of Bahou’s work, including a series of beautiful horse portraits, over on his website.

Image credits: Photographs by Rob Bahou and used with permissi

20 First Photos from the History of Photography


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Photography has been a medium of limitless possibilities since it was originally invented in the early 1800s. The use of cameras has allowed us to capture historical moments and reshape the way we see ourselves and the world around us. To celebrate the amazing history of photography and photographic science, we have assembled twenty photographic ‘firsts’ from over the past two centuries.

#1. The First Photograph

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The world’s first photograph made in a camera was taken in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. The photograph was taken from the upstair’s windows of Niépce’s estate in the Burgundy region of France. This image was captured via a process known as heliography, which used Bitumen of Judea coated onto a piece of glass or metal; the Bitumen than hardened in proportion to the amount of light that hit it.

#2. The First Color Photograph

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The first color photograph was taken by the mathematical physicist, James Clerk Maxwell. The piece above is considered the first durable color photograph and was envied by Maxwell at a lecture in 1861. The inventor of the SLR, Thomas Sutton, was the man who pressed the shutter button, but Maxwell is credited with the scientific process that made it possible. For those having trouble identifying the image, it is a three-color bow.

#3. The First Cape Canaveral Launch Photograph

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NASA photographers snapped the first photograph of a Cape Canaveral launch in July of 1950. The rocket being launched was known as the ‘Bumper 2’; it was a two-stage rocket comprising a V-2 missile based and a WAC Corporal rocket. The shot also clearly showcases other photographers lined up and ready to get their images of the event.

#4. The First Digital Photograph

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The first digital photograph was taken all the way back in 1957; that is almost 20 years before Kodak’s engineer invented the first digital camera. The photo is a digital scan of a shot initially taken on film. The picture depicts Russell Kirsch’s son and has a resolution of 176×176 – a square photograph worthy of any Instagram profile.

#5. The First Photograph of a Person

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The first photograph of a human appeared above in a snapshot captured by Louis Daguerre. The exposure lasted around seven minutes and was aimed at capturing the Boulevard du Temple, a thoroughfare in Paris, France. Due to the long exposure time, many individuals who walked the street where not in place long enough to make an impression. However, in the lower left of the photograph we can see a man standing and getting his shoe’s polished. Further analysis of the picture later found a few other figures – can you find them?

#6. The First Self Portrait Photograph

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Before ‘selfies’ were all the rage, Robert Cornelius set up a camera and took the world’s first self-portrait in the back of a business on Chestnut Street in Center City, Philadelphia. Cornelius sat in front of the lens for a little over a minute, before leaving the seat and covering the lens. The now iconic photograph was captured 185 years ago in 1839.

#7. The First Hoax Photograph

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The first hoax photograph was taken in 1840 by Hippolyte Bayard. Both Bayard and Louis Daguerre fought to claim the title “Father of Photography.” Bayard had supposedly developed his photography process before Daguerre introduced the Daguerreotype. However, the announcement of the invention was held off, and Daguerre claimed the moment. In a rebellious move, Bayard produced this photograph of a drowned man claiming that he killed himself because of the feud.

#8. The First Aerial Photograph

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The first aerial photograph was not taken by drone, but instead by hot air balloon in 1860. This aerial photograph depicts the town of Boston from 2,000 feet. The photographer, James Wallace Black, titled his work “Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It”.

#9. The First Sun Photograph

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The first photograph of our sun was taken by French Physicists Louis Fizeau and Leon Foucault on April 2nd, 1845. The snapshot was captured using the Daguerreotype process (don’t tell Bayard) and resulted after a 1/60 of a second. If you observe the photograph carefully, you can spot several sunspots.

#10. The First Space Photograph

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The first photograph from space was taken by the V-2 #13 rocket, which was launched in October, 24th of 1946. The photo depicts the Earth in black-and-white from an altitude of 65 miles. The camera that captured the shot was a 35mm motion picture camera that snapped a frame every second and a half as the rocket climbed straight up into the atmosphere.

#11. The First News Photograph

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While the photojournalist’s name may have slipped away, his work has not. This photograph taken in 1847 via the Daguerreotype process is thought to be the first ever photograph taken for the news; it depicts a man being arrested in France.

#12. The First President Photograph

John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States, was the first president to have his photograph taken. The daguerreotype was shot in 1843, a good number of years after Adams left office in 1829. The first to have his picture taken in office was James Polk, the 11th President, who was photographed in 1849.

#13. The First Lightning Photograph

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Lightning can be an exciting subject to capture and the first photographer to grab a snapshot did so in 1882. Photographer, William Jennings, used his findings to showcase that lightning was much more complicated than originally thought – notice how the lightning branches out in the above piece.

#14. The First Fatal Airplane Crash Photograph

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Disaster photograph may not be the most pleasant of subjects, but we can learn from our past mistakes. This photo from 1908 showcases the death of Aviator Thomas Selfridge. The plane was an experimental design by the Aerial Experimental Association, which was part of the US Army. The plane was also carrying Orville Wright when it crashed; however, he survived.

#15. The First Moon Photograph

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The first photograph of the moon was taken by John W. Draper on March 26, 1840. The photograph was a Daguerreotype that Draper took from his rooftop observatory at New York University. The image has, since then, appeared to acquire a significant amount of physical damage.

#16. The First Colored Landscape Photograph

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The first colored landscape to showcase the world in color was taken in 1877. Photographer, Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron, was a pioneer in color photography and was the mastermind behind the process that created this photo. The shot depicts southern France and is appropriately titled “Landscape of Southern France”.

#17. The First Photograph of Earth from Moon

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The Earth was photographed from the Moon in all its glory on August 23rd, 1966. A Lunar Orbiter traveling in the vicinity of the Moon snapped the shot and was then received at Robledo De Chervil in Spain. This was the Lunar spacecraft’s 16th orbit around the Moon.

#18. The First Tornado Photograph

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Nature can be a destructive force, and this image of a Tornado was taken in 1884. The photographer was captured by a local fruit farmer living in Anderson County, Kansas. The amateur photographer, A.A. Adams, assembled his box camera and took the photograph 14 miles from the cyclone.

#19. The First Photograph from Mars

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The first image of the planet Mars was taken by Viking 1 shortly after it touched down on the red planet. The photograph was taken on July 20th, 1976, as NASA fulfilled its mission to obtain high-resolution images of the planet’s surface. The images were used to study the Martian landscape and its structure.

#20. The First 3D American President Portrait Photograph

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Computer experts from the Smithsonian and the USC Institute for Creative Technologies teamed up to take the first 3D Presidential Portrait. The shot of Barrack Obama utilized a custom-built 50 LED light array, eight ‘sports’ cameras, and six wide angle cameras. The photograph was than 3D printed and is available for viewing at the Smithsonian.

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terça-feira, 15 de setembro de 2015

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Mais tributos e cortes: a austeridade que o brasileiro vai pagar


El País El País 18 minutos atrás Afonso Benites
Joaquim Levy e Nelson Barbosa anunciam as medidas.© UESLEI MARCELINOJoaquim Levy e Nelson Barbosa anunciam as medidas.
Governo Dilma Rousseff anunciou nesta segunda-feira que pretende recriar a CPMF (o imposto sobre movimentações financeiras) pelo período de quatro anos, além de congelar os reajustes dos servidores públicos federais por sete meses, e cortar em quase 30% os investimentos no programa Minha Casa Minha Vida. As medidas fazem parte de mais uma etapa do pacote de ajuste fiscal, que tem como objetivo transformar o déficit nas contas públicas de 30,5 bilhões de reais do Orçamento de 2016, em um superávit de 60,4 bilhões de reais. O anúncio, feito pelos ministros Joaquim Levy (Fazenda) e Nelson Barbosa (Planejamento) ocorreu após longas reuniões emergenciais convocadas nos últimos três dias.
A pressa para apresentar medidas que ajudem a fechar as contas do Governo vem na sequência do rebaixamento da nota de risco do Brasil por parte da agência Standard & Poor's na semana passada. A iminência de um déficit para o ano que vem teria sido o fator decisivo para que a S&P tirasse o grau de investimento do Brasil.
A nova CPMF precisará ser aprovada pelo Congresso Nacional, que já se mostrou avesso à ideia. Mas, caso passe pelo crivo dos deputados e senadores, será destinada apenas para a Previdência Social, e não terá o foco principal na saúde, como era a CPMF que vigorou entre 1998 e 2007. Se a ressurreição do imposto for aprovada, o valor da contribuição será de 0,2% sobre todas as movimentações financeiras realizadas no Brasil. A estimativa da equipe econômica é arrecadar com ela 32 bilhões de reais.
Nos próximos dias, representantes da gestão Rousseff irão iniciar uma série de negociações com parlamentares para pedir ajuda na aprovação da medida que ainda será enviada ao Legislativo. Quando foi extinta, em 2007, a CPMF, que complementava principalmente o orçamento da saúde e uma parte da Previdência, era de 0,38% sobre as movimentações bancárias. A escolha pelo retorno desse tributo, conforme o ministro Levy, é que ele é mais “democrático” porque abrange toda a sociedade, sem sobrecarregar um ou outro setor. Em outras palavras, todos os brasileiros passam a pagar a conta do plano de austeridade da equipe econômica.
Com relação ao congelamento do funcionalismo público, o objetivo é economizar cerca de 7 bilhões de reais. O Governo agora terá de renegociar com os servidores as propostas de reajustes que já havia apresentado para um período de quatro anos. Para o ano que vem, a estimativa era que o aumento chegasse aos 10,5% a partir de janeiro. De acordo com o ministro Barbosa, para se chegar a essa economia, será necessário estender esse prazo para agosto.
Sobre o Minha Casa Minha Vida, um dos programas-vitrine de Rousseff, o corte será de 4,8 bilhões de reais, quase 30% do que estava previsto para 2016. Por enquanto foi o único programa social em que o Governo admitiu realizar reduções no investimento.
Levy e Barbosa dividiram a apresentação das medidas para reequilibrar as contas públicas em duas partes. Na primeira, trataram do corte de gastos, que pode chegar aos 26 bilhões de reais. Nessa seara, a ordem é suspender concursos públicos, eliminar benefícios para servidores que, mesmo tendo condições legais, não se aposentam (o chamado abono de permanência), encontrar requisitos legais para que os vencimentos do funcionalismo não ultrapassem o teto constitucional, alterar os contratos de fornecedores e convencer congressistas a destinarem emendas parlamentares para obras do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC) e da saúde.
Além da CPMF, o governo deverá deixar de dar benefícios às empresas da indústria químicas, aumentar os impostos para exportadores e vai deixar de estimular o investimento em inovação e tecnologia. O conjunto de medidas pode garantir uma arrecadação de 34,4 bilhões.